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What are carbohydrates? How monosaccharide’s at prepared? Give their characteristics.

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Answer. Carbohydrates are defined as polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketone.     They    have    general    formula    Cn (H2O)n.     They    are macromolecules.

Carbohydrates are synthesized by plants through 1 photosynthesis process from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight and green pigment chlorophyll.


6CO2 +   6H2O         C6H12O6+6O2


      Monosaccharide’s are the simplest sugars which cannot be hydrolyzed. They consist of 3 to 9 carbon atoms. Therefore, they are classified according to the number of carbon atoms in their molecules; as trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses, and so on. The important monosaccharide’s are hexoses like glucose and fructose, etc. Glucose is a pentahydroxy aldehyde while fructose is pentahydroxy ketone having the open chain structures as follow

    CHO                                    CH2OH

  H-C-OH         C=O

HO-C H                                 HO-C-H   

  H-C-OH                                 H-C-OH

  H-C-OH                                 H-C-OH

    CH2OH                                  CH2OH

   Glucose                                   Fructose

Characteristics of monosaccharide’s

Monosaccharide’s are white crystalline solids. They are soluble in water and have sweet taste. They cannot be hydrolyzed. They are reducing in nature, therefore, these are called reducing sugars.
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