The Khilafat Movement(1919-1924) was a major pan-Islamic movement started to save the Ottoman Empire and it extended to India against the British power. During the World War-I, Turkey helped Germany to war against British. Turkish being the founder of Islamic government and the central power of the Muslim unity, the Turkish emperor (Khalifa) was the political and religious leader of all Muslims across the world. In 1918, the British and French army occupied Istanbul and theTurkish Empire (i.e. Ottoman Empire) collapsed. Muslim leaders started the Khilafat movement to protest the allied act and to save the Ottoman. The Muslim populations in India also joined hand and took part in the larger movement and started protesting against the British government.
Khilafat Movement in India
The Khilafat Movement expanded to South Asia under the leadership of Maulana Muhammad Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali, the two brothers. The movement started most parts of North India soon. The Ali brothers united the prominent Muslim leaders likeMaulana Abul Kalam Azad, Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari, Sheikh Shaukat Ali Siddiqui, Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari and others on support of Ottoman Empire and protest against the British rule in India. In India, this movement became a part of the larger Indian independence movement.
Alliance with Indian National Congress
The Khilafat Movement in India got the support of Mahatma Gandhi who started the Non Cooperation Movement against British Indian government in 1920 AD. The leaders of Khilafat Movement and Indian National Congress came to together and formed an alliance to support each other. Khilafat leaders promised to provide full support to Gandhiji in the Non-cooperation Movement. It was a big milestone which united the Hindus and Muslims to fight against the British government as part of Indian independence movement.
End of the Movement
The movement gradually became weak as the Muslim leaders sub divided into different activities of Indian National Congress, Muslim League and Khilafat movement. The movement came to final end in March 1924when the original movement in Turkey was abolished after the conversion of the Sultanate empire to a Republic nation.