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List different constraints for selecting a file organization?

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It is used to determine an efficient file organization for each base relation. For example, if we want to retrieve student records in alphabetical order of name, sorting the file by student name is a good file organization. However, if we want to retrieve all students whose marks is in a certain range, a file ordered by student name would not be a good file organization. Some file organizations are efficient for bulk loading data into the database but inefficient for retrieve and other activities.

The objective of this selection is to choose an optimal file organization for each relation.

Types of File Organization

In order to make effective selection of file organizations and indexes, here we present the details different types of file Organization. These are:

Heap (unordered) File Organization

An unordered file, sometimes called a heap file, is the simplest type of file organization.

Records are placed in file in the same order as they are inserted. A new record is inserted in the last page of the file; if there is insufficient space in the last page, a new page is added to the file. This makes insertion very efficient. However, as a heap file has no particular ordering with respect to field values, a linear search must be performed to access a record. A linear search involves reading pages from the file until the required is found. This makes retrievals from heap files that have more than a few pages relatively slow, unless the retrieval involves a large proportion of the records in the file.

To delete a record, the required page first has to be retrieved, the record marked as deleted, and the page written back to disk. The space with deleted records is not reused. Consequently, performance progressively deteriorates as deletion occurs. This means that heap files have to be periodically reorganized by the Database Administrator (DBA) to reclaim the unused space of deleted records.

Heap files are one of the best organizations for bulk loading data into a table, as records are inserted at the end of the sequence; there is no overhead of calculating what page the record should go on.

Pros of Heap storage

Heap is a good storage structure in the following situations
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