There are two main types of maps - political maps and physical maps.
Physical maps show the shape of the land - hills, lakes, forests, the coast and so on.
Political maps show how the land is used by people - counties, provinces, countries, town boundaries, etc.
Both types of map change over time - forests are cut down, roads are built, towns expand and borders change.
Most maps include a compass rose which indicates the directions of north, south, east and west. They also include a scale which is useful for estimating distances.