Arctic ocean is situated around the North pole.
The Arctic Ocean is the shallowest and smallest ocean with a total area of approximately 13,986,000 square kilometers. It is located around the North Pole and is surrounded by some countries like Greenland, Alaska, Canada, Russia and Norway. The ocean is connected to the Pacific Ocean by the Bering Strait and the Atlantic Ocean by the Greenland Sea. The name “Arctic” comes from the Greek word “Arktos” which means bear, derived from the northern sky constellation in the sky of the ocean, “Ursa Minor” (Little Bear and “Ursa Major” (Great Bear).
It is believed that the origin of the Arctic ocean is in the Cenozoic Era, 65 million years ago. It was formed through the Seafloor Spreading in the lengthways of the Nansen-Gakkel Ridge. Unlike the Southern Ocean that surrounds an ice plate, the Arctic Ocean is surrounded by lands. It is one of the harshest environment in the world with more severe climate change than the Antarctic Ocean. However, millions of people live the Areas near the Arctic due to its richness in natural resources and even fossil fuels. Some facts about the climate, island, depth, location, and current will be discussed furtherly.
The climatic condition of Arctic Ocean is influenced by the solar radiation, and the periodic passage of atmosphere and river flows from the landmasses that surround the Ocean, bringing winds precipitation, and temperature. Generally, the climate of Arctic Ocean is categorized as long, cold winters and short, cool summers. The solar radiation is the major basis for the global and regional climatic condition.
However, solar radiation is influenced by latitudes and the variations of cloud cover. The higher the latitude, the less penetration of sunlight and the frequent variation of cloud cover, the significant variation of light penetration. Since the Arctic Ocean is in the higher latitude, it is subjected to a very cold condition with the presence of, ice, snow, and water. The availability of sunlight creates the four seasons of the Arctic ocean: winter (November through February), summer(around 21 of June), spring (March and April), and autumn, (September and October).
The winds that flow to the Arctic Ocean has an average range of 4-6 meters per second in all four seasons. However, stronger winds also occur especially in the North-Atlantic seas, Baffin Bay, and Bering and Chukchi Seas. The precipitation of Arctic Ocean falls as rain or snow, however, the basin receives very little amount with only less than 250 mm per year except some small regions which receive about 400 mm per year. During November and May, the average monthly precipitation is about 15 mm, and during July, August, and September, precipitation would rise to 20 to 30 mm.