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defined Defects of the Pulmonary Valve

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a) Pulmonary Stenosis. This
anomaly also has two forms: (i) pulmo-
nary valvular stenosis, and (ii) infun­dibular stenosis. In the pulmonary valvular stenosis the cups of the pul­monary valve are partially fused to­gether to form a dome which has a central perforation. The infundibular stenosis is caused by an underdevel­opment of the infundibulum (conus ar­teriosus) of the right ventricle. Depend­ing on the degree of obstruction to blood flow, pulmonary stenosis is ac­companied by a variable degree of hy­pertrophy of the right ventricle.
b) Pulmonary Atresia. In this malformation there is no orifice at the level of pulmonary valve. Conse­quently, the blood from right side of the heart passes to the left through a pat­ent foramen ovale. In addition, a patent ductus arteriosus allows the blood to pass from the arch of aorta to the pul­monary trunk (which conveys this blood to the lungs). ..,
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